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Industry Information

Oil & Gas


A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.

Belt Conveyor

A looped belt on which coal or other materials can be carried and which is generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber or rubber-like substance.

Boom Stacker

A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals on to a stockpile.

Clean Coal Technology

A number of innovative, new technologies designed to use coal in a more efficient and cost-effective manner while enhancing environmental protection. Several promising technologies include: fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, limestone injection multi-stage burner, enhanced flue gas desulfurization (or "scrubbing"), coal liquefaction and coal gasification.

Coal Blending

Coal from various mines and/or different local stockpiles are blended together to create a new batch to meet customer specifications

Coal Gasification

Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas

Coal Reserve

A Coal Reserve is the economically mineable part of a Measured or Indicated coal resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, and include consideration of the modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified. Coal reserves are subdivided in order of increasing confidence into Probable coal reserves and Proved coal reserves.

Coal Resource

Coal Resource is a concentration or occurrence of coal for which there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, quality, geological characteristics and continuity of a Coal Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge. Coal Resources are subdivided in order of increasing geological confidence into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories.

Coal Washing

The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities. Pyritic sulfur, or sulfur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats.

Coking Coal

coal is used to create coke, one of the key inputs for the production of steel.

Cost Insurance & Freight Discharging Port (CIF)

Method of selling cargo where seller pays for loading costs, ocean freight and insurance.


A machine for crushing rock or other materials.

Demurrage Charges

The term demurrage originated in vessel chartering and refers to the period when the charterer remains in possession of the vessel after the period normally allowed to load and unload cargo (laytime).

Dumping Area

A disposal site for the overburden or dirt

Finished Coal (FC)

Coal that been processed.

Free On Board Loading Port (FOB)

Method of selling cargo excluding ocean freight and insurance, but including loading costs.

Hauling Road

The horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste.

Heating Value

The heating value of coal varies from coal field to coal field. (Kcal/kg)

Longwall Mining

A mining method. Longwall mining uses mechanical shearers to cut coal away whilst hydraulic-powered supports hold up the roof of the mine.


Moisture in coal


Million tonnes


Million tonnes per annum

Open–Cut (Open-Pit)

In surface mining the layers of rock or soil overly a coal seam are first removed after which the coal is extracted from the exposed seam


Waste material overlying a coal seam

Port Stockyard

The Coal stock area at the port before load onto the ship

Run-of-Mine Coal (ROM)

Raw material as it exists in the mine; average grade or quality.

Seam (Bed)

A stratum or bed of coal.

Ship Loader

A huge machine used for loading bulk solid materials like iron ore, coal, fertilizers, grains into ships for transportation by sea

Stripping Ratio

Ratio of overburden to be moved for every corresponding quantity of ROM coal mined, usually expressed as m3/t


A naturally occurring mineral that is found mostly near hot springs and volcanic craters.

Thermal Coal (Steam Coal)

A type of coal that primarily used as a solid fuel to produce heat for electricity generation


Tonnes per annum


A merchant ship specially designed to transport bulk cargo, usually transport on End to End destination, the capacity vary between 10,000 - 100,000 tons per shipment.

Washed Coal

Washing coal generally describes a water based process where the denser material (rocks and high ash coal particles) are separated and removed from the coal. The coal generally is processed through water separation machines

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